Oracle Database: Compression Algorithms for Cloud Backup

Hi all!
Again talking about cloud backups for on-premise databases: An important aspect is to compress the data, so network consumption might be reduced once less data is being transfered.Compress_PDF
It’s also important to evaluate CPU consumption. As higher compress algorithm is, as much CPU it uses. So, pay attention!

Now, how to choose the compression algorithm? Here the options Oracle give us:

SQL> col ALGORITHM_NAME for a15
set line 200
SQL> select ALGORITHM_NAME,INITIAL_RELEASE,TERMINAL_RELEASE,ALGORITHM_DESCRIPTION,ALGORITHM_COMPATIBILITY  from v$rman_compression_algorithm;
ALGORITHM_NAME INITIAL_RELEASE    TERMINAL_RELEASE   ALGORITHM_DESCRIPTION                                            ALGORITHM_COMPATIB
-------------- ------------------ ------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------
BZIP2          10.0.0.0.0         11.2.0.0.0         good compression ratio                                           9.2.0.0.0
BASIC          10.0.0.0.0                            good compression ratio                                           9.2.0.0.0
LOW            11.2.0.0.0                            maximum possible compression speed                               11.2.0.0.0
ZLIB           11.0.0.0.0         11.2.0.0.0         balance between speed and compression ratio                      11.0.0.0.0
MEDIUM         11.2.0.0.0                            balance between speed and compression ratio                      11.0.0.0.0
HIGH           11.2.0.0.0                            maximum possible compression ratio                               11.2.0.0.0

How to identify our compression algorithm?

RMAN> show COMPRESSION ALGORITHM;
RMAN configuration parameters for database with db_unique_name EZM_PRFL are:
CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM 'BASIC' AS OF RELEASE 'DEFAULT' OPTIMIZE FOR LOAD TRUE ; # default

And how to change it?

RMAN> CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM 'HIGH';
new RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM 'HIGH' AS OF RELEASE 'DEFAULT' OPTIMIZE FOR LOAD TRUE;
new RMAN configuration parameters are successfully stored
RMAN> show COMPRESSION ALGORITHM;
RMAN configuration parameters for database with db_unique_name EZM_PRFL are:
CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM 'HIGH' AS OF RELEASE 'DEFAULT' OPTIMIZE FOR LOAD TRUE;

Ok,
But how to evaluate my compression ratio?

See the difference between INPUT_BYTES_DISPLAY and OUTPUT_BYTES_DISPLAY columns from the query:

prddb> col STATUS for a10
prddb> col INPUT_BYTES_DISPLAY for a15
prddb> col OUTPUT_BYTES_DISPLAY for a15
prddb> col TIME_TAKEN_DISPLAY for a20
prddb> SELECT SESSION_KEY,
2         INPUT_TYPE,
3         STATUS,
4         TO_CHAR(START_TIME, 'mm/dd/yy hh24:mi') start_time,
5         TO_CHAR(END_TIME, 'mm/dd/yy hh24:mi') end_time,
6  --       ELAPSED_SECONDS / 3600 hrs,
7         COMPRESSION_RATIO,
8         INPUT_BYTES_DISPLAY,
9         OUTPUT_BYTES_DISPLAY,
10         TIME_TAKEN_DISPLAY
11    FROM V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS
12    where input_type like 'DB%'
13   ORDER BY SESSION_KEY
14  /SESSION_KEY INPUT_TYPE    STATUS     START_TIME     END_TIME       COMPRESSION_RATIO INPUT_BYTES_DIS OUTPUT_BYTES_DI TIME_TAKEN_DISPLAY
----------- ------------- ---------- -------------- -------------- ----------------- --------------- --------------- --------------------
          2 DB FULL       COMPLETED  04/22/16 12:59 04/22/16 13:06        6,84838963     4.26G         636.50M       00:06:57
          9 DB FULL       COMPLETED  04/22/16 13:47 04/22/16 13:54        6,83764706     4.26G         637.50M       00:06:37
         14 DB FULL       COMPLETED  04/22/16 16:26 04/22/16 16:33        6,84189878     4.26G         637.25M       00:06:48

KB: https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/backup.112/e10642/rcmconfa.htm#BRADV89466

Done?
If you have any question, please let me know in the comments! 😉
Matheus.

ERROR OGG-00446 – Unable to lock file “*” (error 11, Resource temporarily unavailable).

GoldenGate 12c was running over NFS filesystem and had unexpected stop then when it try starts take OGG-00446.

ERROR OGG-00446 Oracle GoldenGate Capture for Oracle, e_crm01.prm: Unable to lock file “/mnt/ggate/dirchk/MYCRM.cpe” (error 11, Resource temporarily unavailable).

Here the solution:
Move the file /mnt/ggate/dirchk/MYCRM.cpe to
/mnt/ggate/dirchk/MYCRM.cpe_backup

Then copy /mnt/ggate/dirchk/MYCRM.cpe_backup to
/mnt/ggate/dirchk/MYCRM.cpe

I can’t understand why Oracle keeps this stupid bugs on 12c.

C’est La Vie!
Maiquel.

Installing and Configuring ASMLIb on Oracle Linux 7

Hi all!
For those are familiar with RHEL/OEL 4 and 5, there is some differences to start ASMLib on OEL 6 and 7.

spanner.png
So, a quick guide to install (done on OEL 7), start and configure:

1. Install the ASMLib kernel module package as root using the following command:

yum install kmod-oracleasm

2. Install the ASMLib library package and utilities package

yum install oracleasm-support oracleasmlib oracleasm-`uname -r`

It’s possible some package to not found. For example:

No package oracleasmlib available.

So, you can download rpm libs from here and install via rpm:

[root@dbsrv01 oracle]# rpm -Uvh ~/oracleasmlib-2.0.12-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
Preparing...                          ################################# [100%]
Updating / installing...
1:oracleasmlib-2.0.12-1.el6        ################################# [100%]

Ok, now, lets configure/start services:

[root@dbsrv01 ~]# /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure

Nothing happen? Ok, let’s try to start it:

[root@dbsrv01 ~]# /etc/init.d/oracleasm start
Starting oracleasm (via systemctl):  Job for oracleasm.service failed because the control process exited with error code. See "systemctl status oracleasm.service" and "journalctl -xe" for details.
[FAILED]

Hmmm… Are these commands correct?

[root@dbsrv01 ~]# /etc/init.d/oracleasm
Usage: /etc/init.d/oracleasm {configure|createdisk|deletedisk|querydisk|listdisks|scandisks|status}

Ok… So, what to do?

Take a look:

[root@dbsrv01 ~]# oracleasm init
Creating /dev/oracleasm mount point: /dev/oracleasm
Loading module "oracleasm": oracleasm
Configuring "oracleasm" to use device physical block size
Mounting ASMlib driver filesystem: /dev/oracleasm

Victory!
Now, let’s configure:

[root@dbsrv01 ~]# oracleasm configure
ORACLEASM_UID=
ORACLEASM_GID=
ORACLEASM_SCANBOOT=true
ORACLEASM_SCANORDER=""
ORACLEASM_SCANEXCLUDE=""
ORACLEASM_USE_LOGICAL_BLOCK_SIZE="false"

It shows, but how configure?

Just put “-i” clause, like:

[root@dbsrv01 ~]# oracleasm configure -i
Configuring the Oracle ASM library driver.
This will configure the on-boot properties of the Oracle ASM library
driver.  The following questions will determine whether the driver is
loaded on boot and what permissions it will have.  The current values
will be shown in brackets ('[]').  Hitting  without typing an
answer will keep that current value.  Ctrl-C will abort.
Default user to own the driver interface []: grid
Default group to own the driver interface []: oinstall
Scan for Oracle ASM disks on boot (y/n) [y]: y
Writing Oracle ASM library driver configuration: done

And you can list again:

[root@dbsrv01 ~]# oracleasm configure
ORACLEASM_UID=grid
ORACLEASM_GID=oinstall
ORACLEASM_SCANBOOT=true
ORACLEASM_SCANORDER=""
ORACLEASM_SCANEXCLUDE=""
ORACLEASM_USE_LOGICAL_BLOCK_SIZE="false"
[root@dbsrv01 ~]# oracleasm status
Checking if ASM is loaded: yes
Checking if /dev/oracleasm is mounted: yes

To add a disk, the same process can be followed on earlier versions:

[root@dbsrv01 ~]# oracleasm createdisk SDD /dev/sdd1
Writing disk header: done
Instantiating disk: done
[root@dbsrv01 ~]# oracleasm listdisks
SDD

For all commands:

[root@dbsrv01 ~]# oracleasm -h
Usage: oracleasm [--exec-path=]  [  ]
oracleasm --exec-path
oracleasm -h
oracleasm -V
The basic oracleasm commands are:
configure        Configure the Oracle Linux ASMLib driver
init             Load and initialize the ASMLib driver
exit             Stop the ASMLib driver
scandisks        Scan the system for Oracle ASMLib disks
status           Display the status of the Oracle ASMLib driver
listdisks        List known Oracle ASMLib disks
querydisk        Determine if a disk belongs to Oracle ASMlib
createdisk       Allocate a device for Oracle ASMLib use
deletedisk       Return a device to the operating system
renamedisk       Change the label of an Oracle ASMlib disk
update-driver    Download the latest ASMLib driver

And to see arguments for each one:

[root@dbsrv01 ~]# oracleasm configure -h
Usage: oracleasm-configure [-l ] [-i|-I] [-e|-d] [-u ] [-g ] [-b|-p] [-s y|n] [[-o ] ...] [[-x ] ...]

Have a nice day!
See ya!
Matheus.

nc -l – Starting up a fake service

Hi everyone!

Recently i have faced a situation that made me find out a very nice and useful command that helped me a lot, and i hope it comes to help you guys as well, and it’s named:

nc

Situation: We have a replicated environment from one datacenter to another (Using Golden Gate), where the ETL happens. So basically is:

Datacenter 1 (root data)

Replicates to datacenter 2 (transforming the data)

that replicates to datacenter 3 (production itself)

In Datacenter level 2, we have a dataguard configured. So then came the question:

  • What if we need to do the switchover to the standby environments?
  • Will we gonna have everything we need properly set up for the replication?
  • How are we going to test the ports if nothing is up in there? Aren’t we gonna get “connection refused”?

Calm down! There is a very nice workaround for this.

All you need to do is install the nc command as root (if it is not installed already):

yum install nc

Then execute it as follows, on the server you wanna test:

nc -l

example:

I wanna make sure that on the standby server the port 7809 (Golden Gate MANAGER port) is open. On the standby server you run:

nc -l 7809

Then, from a remote server, you are going to be able to connect through a simple telnet command:

telnet server.domain port

example:

telnet standby.company.com 7809

 

ON PRACTICE:

  • Try the telnet from the remote server to the standby:

remoteserver {/home/oracle}: telnet standby.server 7809

Trying 192.168.0.10…

telnet: connect to address 192.168.0.10: Connection refused

  • Then we start the fake service on the standby server!

standby.server {/home/oracle}: nc -l 7809

  • And try the telnet again:

remoteserver {/home/oracle}: telnet standby.server 7809

Trying 192.168.0.10…

Connected to standby.server.

Escape character is ‘^]’.

 

Cheers!

Rafael.

Oracle Licensing: Weblogic Tip!

Like a complement to yesterday post, about Oracle Database Licensing, today’s post is a little tip to Weblogic licensing evaluating, considering an auditing…

The restricted services can be checked on WebLogic Server Basic – Restricted Primary Services in WebLogic Server.

There is also a py script on Orace Support that can be executed via WLST on Admin Sever. Please take a look on: WebLogic Server Basic License Feature Usage Measurement Script (Doc ID 885587.1)

And it’s all by now! 🙂

Hugs!
Matheus.

Oracle Database Licensing: First Step!

Oracle licensing is always a complex question, right?
I made some search about it today and decided to share, on quick mode. As I usually do. I focused on Database, by the way. 🙂

The first step is to understand Features vs Options vs Packs relation. Oracle documentation is always good for that. I recommend you to spend some time on Database Licensing Information User Manual.

Ok, now the best way to undestand how evaluate my environment is searching on Oracle Support, right?
And it do not disappoint: Database Options/Management Packs Usage Reporting for Oracle Databases 11gR2 and 12c (Doc ID 1317265.1)
In this note you can get a complete and actual script used to evaluate features/options/packs utilization (options_packs_usage_statistics.sql). This is a good way if you are preparing for an auditing…

SOFTWARE-LICENSE-REVIEW-300x199

I made some simple queries to validate/understand results from Oracle Script. So, if you don’t have access to Oracle Support, it might help you:

Get Features usage:

SELECT u1.name,
u1.detected_usages,
u1.currently_used,
u1.version,
u1.description
FROM   dba_feature_usage_statistics u1
WHERE  u1.version = (SELECT MAX(u2.version)
FROM   dba_feature_usage_statistics u2
WHERE  u2.name = u1.name)
AND    u1.dbid = (SELECT dbid FROM v$database)
--WHERE DETECTED_USAGES>0 -- To get used features only
ORDER BY name
/

Get Options usage:

col parameter for a50
select parameter,value from v$option
--where value='TRUE' -- To get used options only
/

Information about Session license limits:

SELECT sessions_max s_max,sessions_warning s_warning,
sessions_current s_current,sessions_highwater s_high,users_max
FROM v$license;

Information about CPU license limits:

select cpu_count_current, cpu_core_count_current,CPU_SOCKET_COUNT_CURRENT,
CPU_COUNT_HIGHWATER,CPU_CORE_COUNT_HIGHWATER,CPU_SOCKET_COUNT_HIGHWATER
FROM v$license;

An interesting point is that you can disable and enable options through the command chopt. But, you must to get database down first. Example to disable partitioning option:

chopt disable partitioning

The complete explanation and examples (including right values to activate/deactivate options) can be found on Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks – Enabling and Disabling Database Options.

Some time ago I wrote a post about evaluating Database license in all database park through OEM. It remains valid, I recommend you take a look in this post too.

 

KB and other interesting stuffs:
Database Options/Management Packs Usage Reporting for Oracle Databases 11gR2 and 12c (Doc ID 1317265.1)
12c Release 1 Database Licensing Information User Manual
11g Release 1 Database Licensing Information User Manual
Enabling and Disabling Database Options
Excellent and actual presentation by Martin Berger
Article about top license pitfalls. Good to reflection. Written by OMTCO Consulting

Matheus.

GoldenGate – exclude Oracle database thread#

Your Oracle database instance status changed , so you need to dismiss some thread# on GoldenGate.

SQL> select INST_ID,thread#,status from gv$thread;

INST_ID THREAD# STATUS
———- ———- ——
1                   1                OPEN
1                   2               CLOSED

Try to insert ‘THREADOPTIONS PROCESSTHREADS EXCEPT X’ on your GoldenGate PRM file.
Where X means thread# instance want to ‘exclude’.

It may cause data loss.

Maiquel.