MySQL Error ‘Unknown or incorrect time zone’ at a replica

Have you ever tried to do a MySQL replication at a different timezone/SO and got the following error message at SHOW REPLICA STATUS? Well, there are two ways to solve this, Error ‘Unknown or incorrect time zone: ‘America/Cuiaba” on query. Default database: ‘glpi_tiab’. Query: ‘BEGIN’

If you are on Linux, you can run the following and solve the problem (after a restart of the service).

$ mysql_tzinfo_to_sql /usr/share/zoneinfo | mysql -u root mysql -p

On Windows, I found it to be easier if you download the timezone instead of build/import your own. You can download from here

use mysql;
source /path/to/file/timezone_posix.sql;

Well, that’s it for today. See ya.

5 out of 6 OCI Certifications – Impressions and Experience

Hi all,

Not long ago the was a program by Oracle which gave access to PCI training and certification for free. As several people still wanted to take their chance on the exams, there were an extension on with more openings. I blogged about it here

During the last days studying for the OCI free certifications. Well, let´s say that I procrastinated a bit and along with moving countries with my family, COVID the lockdown and all that comes with it, I managed to pass on 5 out of the 6 OCI certifications that are available, I did not enroll on the Dev one once I knew that Kubernetes and OCI Functions were the type of beast that I was not planning to tackle.

Here are they in order:

And yes I did the Architect Professional prior the Architect Associate, let´s call a miss on schedule from my part – to say the least.

I did all video trainings and some more than one time and read a lot of the documentation. Also asked to collegues and peers how the exams were as soon as I saw they passed in the exams that I was aamin to.

While not working with cloud nor with OCI every day I knew that I needed to put a few extra hours but it not that big of a deal. so if you dont work with cloud and want to get in the game, you sure can do it. Oracle has the free trial and the always free tier that you can levarage from. Mine expired in the middle of the studing so I needed to get creative with the demos that are avaliable and on the last day prior my last exam I was able to get access to my corp´s tenancy (thanks a lot guys) to resolve some cases which I still needed.

The demos from the trainings are not 100% specialy on the Database service side. I was expecting more, there are great demos from Rohit Rahi and Flávio Pereira and others. So I strong recommand that you follow along. My tip goes to increasing the video speed to 1.5x That really helped my to get focus and to move a bit faster to get all done prior each exam.

My scores ranged from 74% upt to 92% and in my opnion the Architect Associate was the most dificult due its questions type not the content it self. As most of the questions were specific to OCI features and services and not related to desing, some trick questions- To me these make the exams less enjoyable. I had no OCI CLI questions which I though It would be also covered.

I would like to thank my family to put up with me for the last week of testing and to Oracle and Oracle Cloud teams which providded the trainings and the exams vouchers.



Elisson Almeida

Monitoring database storage over-committing with OEM extention metric when using autoextend datafiles

Hi all,

Working on a project, I was asked to stop using autoextend on the database file, while setting up a new environment on a client, to avoid ASM diskgroup space issues.

In case the free space was not enough to handle all datafiles growth when often people would add datafiles in autoextend without checking the complete database e storage, which could cause a bigger problem.

I really like the autoextend, as it can prevent processes from failing and even more. Instead of be wasting space as often, in multiple tablespace environment, as the tablespace grows differently and as I mention not all validations are often done when adding space. We just want to resolve the issue and move to the next one.

So how can we save space by using it on where is needed and not being at risk of over-committing the storage use?

The idea is to monitor the database possible growth and compare with the current free space in the ASM diskgroup being used by the database.

So to accomplish that, I used column MAXBYTES in dba_data_files and dba_temp_files. In the example below we can see the current size from the BYTES column and the MAXBYTES as the limit to which the file can grow to be.  If the MAXBYTES is 0 the file does not have autoextend on.


------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- ------------
SYSTEM +ORA_DATA/db01/datafile/system.264.1032015007 2147483648 32212254720
SYSAUX +ORA_DATA/db01/datafile/sysaux.319.1032015009 2751463424 32212254720
UNDOTBS1 +ORA_DATA/db01/datafile/undotbs1.320.103201500 4294967296 0

So, to gather the max database size, I summed the greatest value between BYTES and MAXBYTES (when available) and using the v$asm_diskgroup to grab the current avaliable space from the diskgroup used in the db_create_file_dest parameter and finally subtracting the available space from the max database size:

select dg.FREE_MB - round((dbf.max+tempf.max),0) as total_free
(select trunc(sum(greatest(maxbytes,bytes)/1024/1024)) as max
from dba_data_files ) dbf,
(select trunc(sum(greatest(maxbytes,bytes)/1024/1024)) as max
from dba_temp_files) tempf,
(select FREE_MB
from v$asm_diskgroup where name in (select LTRIM( value, '+' ) from v$parameter where name='db_create_file_dest')) dg;

Based on this we can create several ways to avoid the storage over-committing.

The one I used was to create a metric extension:

If the value of the above query is negative, means that the max database size is greater than the available size therefore the capacity plan for that database must be reviewed.

  1. To create the metric extension, go to, on the OEM menu  – Enterprise -> Monitoring -> Metric Extension > Actions -> Create -> Metric Extension.
  2. In the General Properties page select the target type as Cluster database if it´s RAC or Database instance.
  3. In the Adapter, select “SQL”
  4. In Collection schedule, enable the metric, upload the data and set the collection frequently to your environment needs.
  5. In the Adapter page add the above query.
  6. In the Columns page, add a column for the result of the query.
    1. To fit my environment I only set the critical alert and in case the value of the metric is below 0.
  7. Continue filling the necessary information on the next pages, as well as test the new metric on a selected target, Afterwards save the new metric.
  8. Prior to deploying it to any target you need save the metric as a deployable draft, select the created metric and go the action menu and select Save as Deployable draft

Now you can deploy the new metric to the targets.

Hope this can help!

Elisson Almeida

Autonomous Linux – Did you hear about it?

Hi all!

Not long ago Oracle lunched the Oracle Autonomous Database which run from the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. This new service provides a database which several tasks are automated for you. From security patching, performance tunning and others…


So what this is all about?

Now the Oracle Linux was added to the Autonomous family as well. This means it is an operation system which runs from OCI which goals are to provide a more secure, cost effective and high reliable system with less manual administrative tasks.

It’s not new that security patches are a must but who has the downtime avaliable or the staff to patch their systems every time a new patch is released?

With Oracle Ksplice you will have kernel patches without having to reboot your instance. zero-day vulnerabilities and overall reduced sys admin manual tasks. But we know that this type of solutions do not replace a professional but insetad free their time to do other more important tasks.

What are the down sides of it? In my humble opinion is that we dont have much option to deny a update once we have it automated. We can use the Oracle OS Management Service to manage the servers separating which we want to automate or to manual control.

Note from the Autonomous Linux page is that The Oracle Autonomous Linux image has been moved. It will no longer be available on the  Oracle Cloud Marketplace or the Oracle Images catalog. As of this date, it is available from the Platform Images catalog within the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure console, when creating a compute instance.

I got my seft locked out my OCI account (while studying for the free exams, if dont know what I´m talking abuot please see it here) so I wont be able to show scrren on how to create a insatnce useing the Autonomous Linux but for sure this will be done very soon.

Stay sharp!

Elisson Almeida

ODA Useful Commands to Manage VMs

1. To restart the vm:

oakcli stop vm [vm-name]
oakcli stop vm [vm-name] -force
oakcli start vm [vm-name]

2. To show All vm status

oakcli show vm


root@server oak]# oakcli show vm

vm1 1 8192 4 ONLINE fileshare

3. Listing Configured Options for a VM Template

oakcli show vmtemplate ol6linux_64

4. Adding a Network to the VM Template

oakcli modify vmtemplate ol6linux_64 -addnetwork net1

5. Configure CPU, Memory on the Template

oakcli configure vmtemplate ol6linux_64 -vcpu 4 -maxvcpu 8 -cpucap 10 -memory 3000M -maxmemory 6G -os OTHER_LINUX

6. Create a VM by Cloning from Template

oakcli clone vm ol6test -vmtemplate ol6linux_64 -repo repo1 -node oda2

7. Override VM Template Values

oakcli configure vm ol6test -vcpu 6 -memory 4G

8. Configure High Availability and Failover Values

oakcli configure vm ol6test -prefnode oda2 -failover oda1

9. Start a VM

oakcli start vm ol6test

10. Access VM Console for a VM:

oakcli show vmconsole [vm-name]

Hope it helps you!

General ILOM Faults Management

Hi all,
So just a quick reference: Some useful general commands for ILOM:

1. Check for Faults:

/home/boesing> ssh root@[ilom ip]    

Oracle(R) Integrated Lights Out Manager

Version r74387

Copyright (c) 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

-> cd /SP/faultmgmt

-> start shell
Are you sure you want to start /SP/faultmgmt/shell (y/n)? y

faultmgmtsp> fmadm 
Usage: fmadm 
  where  is one of the following:
    faulty [-asv] [-u ]   : display list of faulty resources
    faulty -f                   : display faulty on FRUs
    acquit                 : acquit faults on a FRU
    acquit                : acquit faults associated with UUID
    acquit           : acquit faults specified by
                                  (FRU, UUID) combination
    replaced               : replaced faults on a FRU
    repaired               : repaired faults on a FRU
    repair                 : repair faults on a FRU
    rotate errlog               : rotate error log
    rotate fltlog               : rotate fault log

faultmgmtsp> fmadm faulty
No faults found

– Another way to see current issues:

show /SP/logs/event/list show faulty

2. Clearing Faults:
In case there is a failure that can be ignored (for example, lost of AC power), it may be cleared:

set /SYS/PSU1 clear_fault_action=true

3. Checking Additional Logs:

start /SYS 
ls /SYS 
start /SP/console 
-> y
show /SP/logs/event/list 

Some MOS notes for reference:

– Diagnostic information for ILOM, ILO , LO100 issues (Doc ID 1062544.1)
– How to run an ILOM Snapshot on a Sun/Oracle X86 System (Doc ID 1448069.1)
– PSH Procedural Article for ILOM-Based Diagnosis (Doc ID 1155200.1)

OEM 12c Agent: java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space

Hi all,

So I got this error from OEM in a client. When connecting noticed OEM agent was down.

From logs, it failed to restart because of error “java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space“.

I tried to run clearstate but got same error.

Searched on MOS – found MOS Duplicate 1952593.1: EM12c: emctl start agent Fails With Target Interaction Manager failed at Startup java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space reported in gcagent_errors.log (Doc ID 1902124.1)

Solution seems to be moving /agent_inst/sysman/emd/state/ content to another location before running clearstate.

After doing so, all worked fine! So if you are facing the same, try this out!

oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ ./emctl status agent
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 4
Copyright (c) 1996, 2014 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Agent is Not Running
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ cd ..
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ cd sysman
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ cd log/
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ ls -lrt | tail
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 4096 Jan 9 09:47
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 11165 Jan 9 09:48
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 153432 Jan 9 09:48 gcagent_errors.log
-rw------- 1 oracle dba 540010788 Jan 9 09:48 heapDump_7.hprof
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 4687452 Jan 9 09:48 gcagent.log
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 1746 Jan 9 09:48 agabend.log
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 2863 Jan 9 09:48 gcagent_pfu.log
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 84308 Jan 9 09:48 emagent.nohup
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 762142 Jan 9 10:06 emdctlj.log
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 121782 Jan 9 10:06 emctl.log
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ date
Monday, January 9, 2020 10:06:24 AM PST
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ tail gcagent.log
2020-01-09 09:48:50,875 [32:F9C26A76] INFO - *jetty*: Graceful shutdown SslSelectChannelConnector@
2020-01-09 09:48:50,877 [32:F9C26A76] INFO - *jetty*: Graceful shutdown ContextHandler@63b5a40a@63b5a40a/emd/lifecycle/main,null
2020-01-09 09:48:50,877 [32:F9C26A76] INFO - *jetty*: Graceful shutdown HTTPLifecycleHandler@7284aa02
2020-01-09 09:48:50,877 [32:F9C26A76] INFO - *jetty*: Graceful shutdown ContextHandler@5dac13d7@5dac13d7/emd/main,null
2020-01-09 09:48:50,877 [32:F9C26A76] INFO - *jetty*: Graceful shutdown HTTPRequestHandler@52a34783
2020-01-09 09:48:50,877 [32:F9C26A76] INFO - *jetty*: Graceful shutdown ServletContextHandler@201d592a@201d592a/emd/browser,null
2020-01-09 09:48:50,878 [32:F9C26A76] INFO - *jetty*: Graceful shutdown ContextHandler@19a9bea3@19a9bea3/emd/persistence/main,null
2020-01-09 09:48:50,878 [32:F9C26A76] INFO - *jetty*: Graceful shutdown HTTPAgentPersistenceHandler@3d89acb5
2020-01-09 09:48:50,878 [32:F9C26A76] INFO - *jetty*: Graceful shutdown ContextHandler@5722cc7e@5722cc7e/,null
2020-01-09 09:48:53,932 [32:F9C26A76] INFO - *jetty*: Shutdown hook complete
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ tail gcagent_errors.log
at oracle.sysman.gcagent.tmmain.lifecycle.TMComponentSvc.invokeNotifier(
at oracle.sysman.gcagent.tmmain.lifecycle.TMComponentSvc.invokeInitializationStep(
at oracle.sysman.gcagent.tmmain.lifecycle.TMComponentSvc.doInitializationStep(
at oracle.sysman.gcagent.tmmain.lifecycle.TMComponentSvc.notifierDriver(
at oracle.sysman.gcagent.tmmain.TMMain.startup(
at oracle.sysman.gcagent.tmmain.TMMain.agentMain(
at oracle.sysman.gcagent.tmmain.TMMain.main(
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ less gcagent_errors.log
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ cd ..
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ cd config/
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ ls -lrt | tail
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 8001 May 13 2016 b64LocalCertificate.txt
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 17893 May 13 2016 b64InternetCertificate.txt
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 7833 May 13 2016
-rw------- 1 oracle dba 499 May 20 2016
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 8202 Sep 26 01:20
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 8204 Jan 9 09:46
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 156 Jan 9 09:46
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 8204 Jan 9 09:48
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 266 Jan 9 09:48
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 156 Jan 9 09:48
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ date
Monday, January 9, 2020 10:07:56 AM PST
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ n/emctl status agent
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 4
Copyright (c) 1996, 2014 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Agent is Not Running
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ which emctl
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ e agent; emctl start agent

Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 4 Copyright (c) 1996, 2014 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved. EMD clearstate failed: Offline clearstate failed : java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 4 Copyright (c) 1996, 2014 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved. Starting agent ...........................................................................................................................failed. Consult emctl.log and emagent.nohup in: /db/oracle/product/agent12c/ oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ cd .. oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ cd emd oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ mkdir state-20200109 oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ mv state/* state\-20200109/ oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ du -hs state* 1K state 166M state-20200109 oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ emctl clearstate agent; emctl sta
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 4
Copyright (c) 1996, 2014 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
EMD clearstate completed successfully
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 4
Copyright (c) 1996, 2014 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Starting agent ......................... started.
oracle@dbserver:/db/oracle/product/agent12c/$ emctl status agent
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 4
Copyright (c) 1996, 2014 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Agent Version :
OMS Version :
Protocol Version :
Agent Home : /db/oracle/product/agent12c/
Agent Log Directory : /db/oracle/product/agent12c/
Agent Binaries : /db/oracle/product/agent12c/
Agent Process ID : 27885
Parent Process ID : 27848
Agent URL :
Local Agent URL in NAT :
Repository URL :
Started at : 2020-01-09 10:15:39
Started by user : oracle
Operating System : SunOS version 5.11 (sparcv9)
Last Reload : (none)
Last successful upload : 2020-01-09 10:17:35
Last attempted upload : 2020-01-09 10:17:35
Total Megabytes of XML files uploaded so far : 0.59
Number of XML files pending upload : 1
Size of XML files pending upload(MB) : 0
Available disk space on upload filesystem : 50.38%
Collection Status : Collections enabled
Heartbeat Status : Ok
Last attempted heartbeat to OMS : 2020-01-09 10:16:54
Last successful heartbeat to OMS : 2020-01-09 10:16:54
Next scheduled heartbeat to OMS : 2020-01-09 10:17:54

Agent is Running and Ready


Amazon RDS: How to perform RMAN operations?

Hi all,

Need to performa any RMAN Operation from Amazon RDS? Maybe something like validating backups?

Well, we have some options under by using RDSADMIN_RMAN_UTIL package. See below an example for validate backup:

 p_validation_type => 'PHYSICAL+LOGICAL',
 p_parallel => 4,
 p_section_size_mb => 10,
 p_rman_to_dbms_output => FALSE);

More info about it:

Hope it helps, cheers!

AWS RDS: Read Oracle Traces from SQL*Plus

Hi all,

One more for AWS services. Let’s say you need to read tracefiles from RDS, hot to do it?

Here is an example on how to list and read those files:

SQL> select * from dba_directories;

---------- ------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------ -------------
SYS BDUMP /rdsdbdata/log/trace 0
SYS ADUMP /rdsdbdata/log/audit 0
SYS OPATCH_LOG_DIR /rdsdbbin/oracle/QOpatch 0
SYS OPATCH_SCRIPT_DIR /rdsdbbin/oracle/QOpatch 0
SYS DATA_PUMP_DIR /rdsdbdata/datapump 0
SYS OPATCH_INST_DIR /rdsdbbin/oracle/OPatch 0
SYS TMP /rdsdbdata/userdirs/01 0

7 rows selected.

SQL> select * from table (rdsadmin.rds_file_util.read_text_file( p_directory => 'BDUMP', p_filename => 'trace/CPROD1_s003_81573.trc'));

From the trace file:
index undo for leaf key operations
KTB Redo
op: 0x02 ver: 0x01
compat bit: 4 (post-11) padding: 1
op: C uba: 0x000e289e.51da.47
Dump kdilk : itl=98, kdxlkflg=0x1 sdc=0 indexid=0x1c53db block=0x0019bdc0
(kdxlpu): purge leaf row
key :(24):
07 78 76 0c 17 17 09 32 08 c7 07 1a 02 28 15 01 18 06 00 1a 3c 99 00 1e

File 3 is not mirrored.

End dump previous blocks for kdsgrp
* kdsgrp1-2: ***********************************************
kdsDumpState: RID context dump

45511581 rows selected.

SQL> select * from table (rdsadmin.rds_file_util.listdir( p_directory => 'BDUMP')) order by mtime;

---------------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------
CPROD1_ora_48800.trm file 73 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_48800.trc file 998 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_86597.trc file 998 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_86597.trm file 73 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_7999.trc file 881 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_7999.trm file 71 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_7997.trm file 71 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_7997.trc file 881 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_8240.trm file 71 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_8240.trc file 881 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_8381.trm file 72 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_8381.trc file 995 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_8540.trc file 881 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_8540.trm file 71 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_9876.trc file 881 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_9876.trm file 71 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_11142.trm file 72 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_11142.trc file 883 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_11182.trc file 883 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_11182.trm file 72 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_55077.trm file 73 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_55077.trc file 997 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_92260.trm file 73 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_92260.trc file 997 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_123869.trc file 1000 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_123869.trm file 74 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_41305.trc file 998 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_41305.trm file 73 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_j002_3293.trc file 114049 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_j002_3293.trm file 370 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_mmon_71739.trc file 7511332 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_mmon_71739.trm file 738330 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_92888.trc file 997 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_92888.trm file 73 24-DEC-18
trace/ directory 323584 24-DEC-18
alert_CPROD1.log file 204808 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_70145.trc file 1470 24-DEC-18
CPROD1_ora_70145.trm file 109 24-DEC-18

3845 rows selected.

SQL> select * from table (rdsadmin.rds_file_util.listdir( p_directory => 'BDUMP')) where filename like '%CPROD1_s003_81573.trc%';

---------------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------
CPROD1_s003_81573.trc file 1948134047 23-DEC-18


Checking Basic Licensing Info on a DB Server

Hi all!
So, I got a new client and started checking on his licensing and hardware. Then I realized how “non-standard” this is and Oracle should probably provide a better way to do it. So I decided to share a few things:

# Checking Oracle Version Installed:

[oracle@greporaSRV inventory]$ cd /opt/oraInventory/logs
[oracle@greporaSRV logs]$  grep "\- Database edition" installActions*.log
INFO: - Database edition : Standard Edition One (Create and configure a database)

# Checking number of Sockets

[root@greporaSRV ~]# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep "physical id" | sort -u | wc -l

# Checking number of CPU Cores per Socket

[root@greporaSRV ~]# lscpu | grep 'socket'
Core(s) per socket:    4